Catuai coffee variety – Do you know? The coffee that we are very fond of consuming has many varieties. Coffee grows and develops in various regions with different characteristics so that the taste that is brought is different. How many varieties of coffee are there in the world? What types are popular in Indonesia?
Coffee grows and develops differently around the world. Coffee varieties that grow well in Ethiopia may not thrive in Indonesia. Different factors, such as humidity, rainfall, sunshine, altitude, and soil characteristics all have an impact on the yield and quality of the coffee plant, which will vary widely based on the variety planted.
Each coffee variety certainly has its own characteristics and uniqueness, therefore, if we could try different varieties of coffee, it would be very good! Well, Indonesia even has coffee varieties that are popular in the world. Indonesia as a coffee producing country certainly has varieties that are unique and in accordance with the characteristics of “Indonesia”.
So, what exactly are coffee varieties? How many types of coffee varieties in the world? Let’s find out!
What Are Coffee Varieties?
Coffee variety refers to the coffee subspecies. Coffee beans from two different places usually also have different characteristics, both in terms of aroma (from citrus aroma to earthy aroma), caffeine content, taste and acidity level. These characteristics depend on where the coffee plant is grown, the production process and the genetic differences in the coffee subspecies.
Coffee varieties are subspecies derived from selective breeding or natural selection of the coffee plant. There is actually a lot of variability that can be found in coffee plants; whether it is grown naturally or cultivated. There are several varieties and cultivars that are well known in the world because of their characteristics.
Pest resistance and the uniqueness of fruit yields are usually sought after by coffee farmers or producers when developing coffee plants. The variety / cultivar selection stage is a very important component in determining the quality of the coffee bean yield.
Then, what is the difference between varieties and cultivars? Cultivars are all varieties produced from horticultural / agricultural techniques and are usually not found in natural populations. In short, cultivars are varieties that are deliberately cultivated. Most of the varieties we know today, are actually cultivars.
Then What About Catuai Coffee Variety?
Quoting from kopitem.com, it is said that there are at least more than 25 popular coffee varieties around the world, including Indonesia. Some of them are Typica, Catuai, Bourbon, Geisha, Catimor, Caturra, Robusta, SL34, Maragogype and others. The Catuai coffee variety has been in production for more than four decades, and although it is no longer new to the market, it is valued for its high yield, reliable quality and potential profit for the producer.
Since the Catuai coffee variety is a smaller plant, it can be planted close together, creating a higher planting density and allowing easier access to the cherries during harvest. Catuai also contains elements of Robusta coffee in the seeds. This causes the acidity in it to be very low while the bitterness feels so strong.
Where Does Catuai Coffee Variety Come From?
Although it has been studied since the 1940s, the Catuai cultivar (cultivated variety) was only officially introduced to Brazil in 1972.It is a genetic cross between two natural Arabica mutations Caturra yellow and Mundo Novo, which can be red and varied.
Catuai was first introduced in Guatemala in 1970, where it currently accounts for 20% of the country’s total coffee production. Subsequently, Catuai was introduced to Honduras in 1983 and and now accounts for nearly half of all cultivated Arabica. Finally Catuai was introduced to Costa Rica in 1985.
Catuai are generally widely grown in Indonesia, South America and Central America. In Indonesia, quoted from majalah.ottencoffee.co.id, it is said that Catuai coffee variety grows in the Timor area and the eastern part of Indonesia.
Production and Processing of Catuai Coffee Variety
The first harvest of Catuai coffee is usually done after 3 years. Catuai is a very productive variety if the management during production is appropriate and carried out properly. This Catuai coffee variety responds well to liming and fertilization. Some harvest on the Catuai coffee variety can even be faster than 3 years, Catuai coffee production is very suitable for the needs of large amounts of coffee for later storage and is suitable for sales of increasingly large quantities.
Regarding processing and drying, of course using different methods from one country to another. This adapts to the culture of the country itself, as well as the cup profile / characteristics and the desired taste. As you know that coffee processing, drying also affects the profile cup and characteristic of coffee.
Sérgio Pereira Parreiras, a Scientific Researcher at IAC (Instituto Agronômico de Campinas) through perfectdailygrind.com, stated that in Brazil, Catuai is processed using traditional and natural methods. It aims to add body to the coffee and create a unique profile. Meanwhile, in Central America, natural drying in beds is mostly done by small producers.
Common Problems in Catuai Variety Production
The biggest problem Catuai faces is its poor resistance toward rust, fungal infections and pests. However, this changed with the creation of a newer generation of cultivars. Quoting from gordi.id it is said that coffee cherries in the Catuai coffee variety are generally red or yellow in color. However, the coffee cherries are yellow, when cold, have an unpleasant taste like oil.
Although this variety has inherent variability from coffea robusta, Catuai can taste bitter and both (red or yellow catuai coffee) have a high level of acidity. However, when properly grown and processed, Catuai can make a great cup of coffee even when roasted dark (dark roast).
While the Catuai coffee variety is characterized as a thriving coffee plant, it is highly susceptible to coffee rust disease and coffee berry disease. It also has high nutritional requirements during growth, which means it requires additional investment and maintenance from the producer during its growth stage.
However, the taste profiles obtained from the Catuai coffee varieties are very diverse so that the demand remains high. This is the true quality of the Catuai coffee variety. That is why, this variety is one of the most popular.
Catuai coffee contains robusta coffee elements in the seeds causing the acidity in it to be very low while bitterness feels so strong. Even though it’s bitter, Catuai gives an after-taste fruity and herbal flavor to each brew. The taste of coffee is also inseparable from the production and processing process.
Quoted from perfectdailygrind.com, it is mentioned that, Catuai coffee has several notes of flavor including: chocolate, caramel, honey, almond, and spices. Catuai coffee is recommended to be roasted with light to medium levels to produce the best quality.
João Batista Pavesi, a Producer Consultant, Q Grader, and Professor at the Federal Institute of Education, Science, and Technology of Espírito Santo Brazil through perfectdailygrind.com stated that red Catuai can have a fuller body and yellow Catuai can have a softer body. However, this will also depend on the climatic conditions and altitudes that exist during growth, as well as the post-harvest processing that is carried out. He added, red Catuai beans tend to produce more complex coffee.
CV. Buah Berdikari is an active coffee trading and exporting company that is based in North Sumatera, Indonesia. Our domain of expertise lays on sourcing Arabica green beans from North Sumatera and Aceh origins. We will help you finding the perfect fits for your coffee needs.